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Trauma is a deeply distressing or disturbing experience that can have long-lasting effects on an individual’s mental and emotional well-being. Recovering from trauma requires a comprehensive and tailored approach, as each person’s experience and response to trauma are unique.

At Positive Reset, we offer a variety of therapeutic approaches to help individuals heal from trauma. This blog will explore the different types of therapy for trauma, their benefits, and how they can aid in the recovery process.

Table of Contents

Understanding Trauma

What is Trauma?

Trauma is an emotional response to a terrible event such as an accident, rape, or natural disaster. It can also result from prolonged exposure to stressful situations, such as abuse or neglect. Trauma can manifest in various ways, including flashbacks, nightmares, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable thoughts about the event.

Types of Trauma

Understanding the different types of trauma is essential for recognizing the impact it can have on an individual’s mental and emotional well-being. Trauma can manifest in various ways, and the nature of the traumatic experience often influences the therapeutic approach needed for recovery. Here, we explore the three primary types of trauma: acute trauma, chronic trauma, and complex trauma.

1. Acute Trauma

What is Acute Trauma?

Acute trauma results from a single distressing event. This type of trauma is typically characterized by a clear beginning and end and can occur due to incidents such as natural disasters, serious accidents, physical assaults, or witnessing a violent event.

Examples of Acute Trauma

  • Natural Disasters: Experiencing events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, or floods.
  • Accidents: Being involved in a serious car accident or industrial accident.
  • Physical Assaults: Experiencing or witnessing a physical attack, robbery, or domestic violence.
  • Witnessing Violence: Observing a violent crime or a catastrophic event.

Symptoms of Acute Trauma

Symptoms of acute trauma can vary but often include:

  • Emotional Symptoms: Intense fear, anxiety, or anger; feelings of helplessness; emotional numbness.
  • Cognitive Symptoms: Intrusive thoughts, flashbacks, or nightmares related to the event; difficulty concentrating.
  • Physical Symptoms: Hypervigilance, startle response, sleep disturbances, and physical pain or tension.

Treatment for Acute Trauma

Acute trauma typically responds well to early intervention and treatment. Therapeutic approaches for acute trauma often include:

  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): To address negative thought patterns and behaviors.
  • Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR): To process and integrate traumatic memories.
  • Mindfulness Practices: To help manage stress and remain present.

2. Chronic Trauma


What is Chronic Trauma?

Chronic trauma results from repeated and prolonged exposure to highly stressful events. This type of trauma often occurs in environments where the individual experiences ongoing stress or abuse over an extended period. Chronic trauma can significantly impact a person’s mental and physical health, leading to long-term emotional and psychological difficulties.

Examples of Chronic Trauma

  • Childhood Abuse: Experiencing ongoing physical, emotional, or sexual abuse during childhood.
  • Domestic Violence: Living in an abusive relationship where physical, emotional, or psychological abuse occurs regularly.
  • Bullying: Enduring prolonged bullying in school, the workplace, or online.
  • War and Combat: Continuous exposure to combat situations, including military personnel and civilians in war zones.

Symptoms of Chronic Trauma

Chronic trauma often results in more severe and long-lasting symptoms compared to acute trauma:

  • Emotional Symptoms: Persistent anxiety, depression, feelings of worthlessness, or guilt.
  • Cognitive Symptoms: Chronic intrusive thoughts, difficulty with memory and concentration, and dissociation.
  • Physical Symptoms: Chronic pain, gastrointestinal issues, and sleep disturbances.

Treatment for Chronic Trauma

Treating chronic trauma requires a comprehensive and sustained approach. Effective therapies include:

  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): To help manage intense emotions and improve interpersonal skills.
  • Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE): To gradually reduce the fear and anxiety associated with trauma-related cues.
  • Sensorimotor Psychotherapy: To address trauma stored in the body and improve bodily awareness and regulation.

3. Complex Trauma

What is Complex Trauma?

Complex trauma, also known as complex PTSD (C-PTSD), results from exposure to multiple traumatic events, often of an invasive, interpersonal nature. This type of trauma is typically associated with experiences that occur during critical developmental periods, such as childhood, and involve betrayal or abuse by a trusted person.

Examples of Complex Trauma

  • Childhood Neglect and Abuse: Prolonged exposure to neglect, physical, emotional, or sexual abuse by caregivers.
  • Domestic Violence: Enduring multiple instances of domestic violence over a prolonged period.
  • Human Trafficking: Experiencing ongoing exploitation and abuse in trafficking situations.
  • Captivity and Torture: Suffering from repeated abuse and control in captivity situations, such as prisoners of war or kidnapping victims.

Symptoms of Complex Trauma

Complex trauma often results in severe and pervasive symptoms that affect multiple aspects of an individual’s life:

  • Emotional Symptoms: Deep-seated feelings of shame, guilt, and self-blame; difficulty regulating emotions.
  • Cognitive Symptoms: Negative self-perception, difficulties with trust and relationships, dissociation, and fragmented memories.
  • Behavioral Symptoms: Self-destructive behaviors, substance abuse, difficulty maintaining relationships, and issues with identity and self-worth.

Treatment for Complex Trauma

Due to the multifaceted nature of complex trauma, treatment often involves a combination of therapies tailored to address the wide range of symptoms:

  • Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT): To process traumatic experiences and develop coping strategies.
  • Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET): To help individuals construct a coherent narrative of their traumatic experiences.
  • Family Therapy: To improve communication and support within the family system, addressing relational impacts of trauma.
  • Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR): To enhance present-moment awareness and reduce stress.

The Importance of Trauma Therapy

Why Seek Therapy for Trauma?

Trauma therapy is crucial for individuals who have experienced traumatic events as it helps them process and integrate their experiences, reducing the emotional and psychological impact. Without appropriate treatment, trauma can lead to long-term mental health issues such as PTSD, depression, and anxiety.

Counseling therapy and support for a sad husband and wife, with a caring therapist helping them navigate relationship issues.

Types of Therapy for Trauma

1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

What is CBT?

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is a type of psychotherapy that helps individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors. It is widely used to treat a variety of mental health conditions, including trauma.

Benefits of CBT for Trauma

  • Identifying Negative Thoughts: CBT helps individuals recognize and challenge distorted thoughts related to their trauma.
  • Behavioral Changes: It encourages the development of healthier coping mechanisms.
  • Skill Development: Individuals learn skills to manage anxiety and improve emotional regulation.

How CBT Works

CBT typically involves structured sessions where the therapist and the individual work together to identify and challenge negative thoughts. Techniques such as cognitive restructuring, exposure therapy, and stress management are commonly used.

2. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)

What is EMDR?

EMDR is a psychotherapy technique designed to alleviate the distress associated with traumatic memories. It involves guided eye movements or other forms of bilateral stimulation to help individuals process and integrate traumatic experiences.

Benefits of EMDR for Trauma

  • Rapid Relief: EMDR can provide rapid relief from the symptoms of trauma.
  • Processing Traumatic Memories: It helps individuals reprocess traumatic memories in a way that reduces their emotional impact.
  • Improved Emotional Regulation: EMDR can enhance the ability to manage stress and emotional responses.

How EMDR Works

During an EMDR session, the therapist asks the individual to recall distressing events while focusing on an external stimulus, such as the therapist’s moving finger or a light. This process is thought to facilitate the reprocessing of traumatic memories.

3. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT)

What is TF-CBT?

TF-CBT is a type of cognitive behavioral therapy specifically designed to address the unique needs of individuals who have experienced trauma. It integrates trauma-sensitive interventions with cognitive behavioral techniques.

Benefits of TF-CBT for Trauma

  • Addressing Trauma Symptoms: TF-CBT is effective in reducing trauma-related symptoms.
  • Family Involvement: It often includes family members in the therapeutic process, which can enhance support and healing.
  • Holistic Approach: TF-CBT addresses the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral impacts of trauma.

How TF-CBT Works

TF-CBT involves individual therapy sessions for the child or adolescent and parallel sessions for parents or caregivers. The therapy focuses on processing the trauma, developing coping strategies, and improving family communication and support.

4. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

What is DBT?

DBT is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy that emphasizes the psychosocial aspects of treatment. It was originally developed to treat borderline personality disorder but has been found effective for trauma as well.

Benefits of DBT for Trauma

  • Emotional Regulation: DBT helps individuals manage intense emotions associated with trauma.
  • Mindfulness: It teaches mindfulness techniques to help individuals stay present and reduce anxiety.
  • Interpersonal Effectiveness: DBT improves communication skills and relationships, which can be impacted by trauma.

How DBT Works

DBT involves individual therapy sessions, group skills training, and phone coaching. The therapy focuses on four key areas: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness.

5. Prolonged Exposure Therapy (PE)

What is PE?

Prolonged Exposure Therapy is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy that helps individuals confront and process traumatic memories through repeated exposure to trauma-related thoughts, feelings, and situations.

Benefits of PE for Trauma

  • Desensitization: PE helps reduce the fear and anxiety associated with traumatic memories.
  • Empowerment: It empowers individuals to face their fears in a controlled environment.
  • Improved Functioning: PE can improve overall functioning and reduce avoidance behaviors.

How PE Works

PE involves repeated and systematic exposure to trauma-related cues, both in imagination and in real-life situations. This process helps individuals gradually reduce their fear and anxiety responses.

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6. Sensorimotor Psychotherapy

What is Sensorimotor Psychotherapy?

Sensorimotor Psychotherapy is a body-centered approach that integrates physical and emotional processing of trauma. It emphasizes the connection between the body and mind in the healing process.

Benefits of Sensorimotor Psychotherapy for Trauma

  • Body Awareness: It helps individuals become more aware of their physical sensations and how they relate to emotions.
  • Trauma Release: The therapy facilitates the release of trauma stored in the body.
  • Holistic Healing: It integrates both cognitive and somatic (body-based) techniques for comprehensive healing.

How Sensorimotor Psychotherapy Works

Therapists guide individuals through body-centered exercises to help them become aware of physical sensations and movements. This awareness helps process and release traumatic experiences stored in the body.

7. Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET)

What is NET?

Narrative Exposure Therapy is a short-term treatment for trauma that helps individuals construct a coherent narrative of their traumatic experiences, placing them within the context of their entire life story.

Benefits of NET for Trauma

  • Integration of Memories: NET helps individuals integrate traumatic memories into a coherent life narrative.
  • Empowerment: It empowers individuals by validating their experiences and resilience.
  • Short-Term Treatment: NET is a brief and focused therapy that can produce significant results.

How NET Works

NET involves creating a chronological narrative of the individual’s life, highlighting both positive and traumatic experiences. This process helps integrate traumatic memories and reduce their emotional impact.

8. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)

What is MBSR?

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction is a program that uses mindfulness meditation to help individuals manage stress and trauma-related symptoms. It emphasizes present-moment awareness and acceptance.

Benefits of MBSR for Trauma

  • Stress Reduction: MBSR helps reduce stress and anxiety related to trauma.
  • Improved Emotional Regulation: It enhances the ability to manage difficult emotions.
  • Enhanced Well-Being: MBSR promotes overall mental and emotional well-being.

How MBSR Works

MBSR typically involves an eight-week program that includes mindfulness meditation, body scanning, and yoga. Participants learn to focus on the present moment and develop a non-judgmental awareness of their thoughts and feelings.

Mid-adult woman lying down on a sofa during an appointment with her psychiatrist, discussing types of trauma therapy.

Choosing the Right Therapy for Trauma

Factors to Consider

When choosing the right type of therapy for trauma, consider the following factors:

  • Nature of the Trauma: Different therapies may be more effective for certain types of trauma.
  • Individual Preferences: Personal preferences and comfort with the therapeutic approach are important.
  • Therapist Expertise: Ensure the therapist is experienced and trained in the specific type of trauma therapy.
  • Availability and Accessibility: Consider the availability of the therapy in your area and whether it is accessible to you.

Positive Reset’s Approach to Trauma Therapy

At Positive Reset, we offer a range of trauma therapy options tailored to meet the unique needs of each individual. Our team of experienced therapists is dedicated to providing compassionate and effective care to help you heal from trauma. Whether you prefer cognitive-behavioral techniques, mindfulness practices, or body-centered approaches, we have the expertise to support your recovery journey.


Healing from trauma is a deeply personal and challenging process, but the right therapeutic approach can make a significant difference. Understanding the various types of therapy for trauma and finding the one that best suits your needs can help you move forward and reclaim your life. At Positive Reset, we are committed to helping you find the path to healing that works best for you. If you or a loved one is struggling with trauma, contact Positive Reset today to learn more about our trauma therapy services and start your journey towards recovery.

Take the First Step Towards a Healthy Mental Wellbeing.

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What is the most effective type of therapy for trauma?

The most effective type of therapy for trauma varies depending on the individual and the nature of the trauma. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) are among the most commonly recommended therapies.


How long does trauma therapy take?

The duration of trauma therapy varies based on the individual’s needs, the type of therapy, and the severity of the trauma. Some therapies, like Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET), are short-term, while others may require a longer commitment.


Can trauma therapy be done online?

Yes, many types of trauma therapy can be conducted online, providing flexibility and accessibility for individuals who may not be able to attend in-person sessions.


What should I expect during a trauma therapy session?

During a trauma therapy session, you can expect to discuss your experiences and feelings related to the trauma. The therapist will guide you through specific techniques and exercises designed to help you process and integrate your traumatic experiences.


How do I know if I need trauma therapy?

If you are experiencing symptoms such as flashbacks, nightmares, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable thoughts about a traumatic event, it may be beneficial to seek trauma therapy. A mental health professional can help assess your needs and recommend the appropriate treatment.